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Thursday, July 16, 2020 | History

2 edition of Haemophilus influenzae, antimicrobials and the host response found in the catalog.

Haemophilus influenzae, antimicrobials and the host response

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Published by Royal Society of Medicine Services in London .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Haemophilus influenzae

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographical references.

    Statementedited by A.J. Howard.
    SeriesInternational congress and symposium series -- no. 139.
    ContributionsHoward, A. J., Royal Society of Medicine Services (Great Britain)
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQR82.B95
    The Physical Object
    Paginationvii, 79 p., [2] p. of plates :
    Number of Pages79
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL18703886M
    ISBN 100905958772

    Pharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is important in the transmission of Hib organisms, the pathogenesis of Hib disease, and the development of immunity to the bacterium. The remarkable success of current vaccination programs against Hib has been due in part to the effect of conjugate Hib vaccines in decreasing carriage of Hib. The widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines has nearly eradicated invasive Hib disease where the vaccines are used. This success was accompanied by a shift in capsular serotypes of invasive H. influenzae disease, with nontypeable strains replacing type b strains as the most common bloodstream isolate, but there is no convincing evidence of a true increase in.

    In Haemophilus influenzae Protocols, leading research scientists and infectious disease specialists detail in a readily reproducible format the major molecular and immunological techniques for exploring the pathogenicity of this significant bacterium. Described with step-by-step instructions to ensure robust and successful experimental results. Haemophilus influenzae is divided into encapsulated strains (serotypes a–f) and unencapsulated, that is, nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi). An efficient vaccine against H. influenzae type b (Hib) was introduced in the s, and ever since the incidence of Hib infections has decreased dramatically. NTHi is after pneumococci one of the leading causes of acute otitis media in children [].

    Before the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, rates of invasive H. influenzae disease among indigenous people of the North American Arctic were among the highest in the world. Routine vaccination reduced rates to low levels; however, serotype replacement with non–type b strains may result in a reemergence of invasive disease in children.   Murphy TF, Apicella MA. Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae: a review of clinical aspects, surface antigens, and the human immune response to infection. Rev Infect Dis. Jan-Feb. 9(1) Rubin LG, Moxon ER. Pathogenesis of bloodstream invasion with Haemophilus influenzae type b. Infect Immun. Jul. 41(1)


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Haemophilus influenzae, antimicrobials and the host response Download PDF EPUB FB2

Haemophilus influenzae, antimicrobials and the host response. London ; New York: Royal Society of Medicine Services, (OCoLC) Material Type: Conference publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: A J Howard; Eli Lilly and Company. Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus influenzae, antimicrobials and the host response/ edited by A.J.

Howard. Country of Publication: England Publisher: London ; New York: Royal Society of Medicine Services, Haemophilus Infections/drug therapy*Haemophilus Infections/pathology*; Haemophilus influenzae/pathogenicity* Publication Type(s): Congresses.

SUMMARY Haemophilus influenzae is a major community-acquired pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Meningitis and bacteremia due to type b strains occur in areas where the protein-conjugated type b vaccine is not in use, whereas nontypeable strains are major causes of otitis media, sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and by: A Gram-negative pathogen Haemophilus influenzae has a truncated endotoxin known as lipooligosaccharide (LOS).

Recent studies on H. influenzae LOS highlighted its structural Haemophilus influenzae compositional implications for bacterial virulence; however, the role of LOS in the activation of innate and adaptive immunity is poorly understood.

THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with either Cited by:   Bacterial strategies of innate immune evasion and essential metabolic functions are critical for commensal-host homeostasis. Previously, we showed that Sap translocator function is necessary for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) behaviors that mediate diseases of the human airway.

Antimicrobial peptide (AP) lethality is limited by binding mediated by the Sap complex. The host immune response also plays an important role in NTHi pathogenesis.

In COPD patients, neutrophils and their antimicrobial molecules are highly present in sputum. 2 When NT Hi is phagocytized by neutrophils, a respiratory burst and high levels. Sample form for recording antimicrobial susceptibility test results 15 for Haemophilus influenzae 6.

The antimicrobial susceptibility disk diffusion test: disk placement 18 and measurement of inhibition zone diameters 7. Proper placement of Etest® strips on dry, inoculated plates 22 8. Guidance for reading Etest® results 23 9. Haemophilus influenzae disease is a name for any illness caused by bacteria called H.

of these illnesses, like ear infections, are mild while others, like bloodstream infections, are very serious. In spite of the name, H.

influenzae do not cause influenza (the flu).Vaccines can prevent one type of H. influenzae (type b or Hib) disease. influenzae utilizes phase variation of its surface antigens to evade the host immune response.

influenzae establishes an infection by first colonizing the upper respiratory tract. When the host is compromised, the pathogen can disseminate and cause otitis media, meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, and other infections.

Methods to detect H. influenzae. For many years, the standard method for detection of H. influenzae in respiratory samples was growth on culture plates and identification using morphological characteristics and growth requirements.

However, culture has a number of drawbacks, including difficulty in distinguishing H. influenzae from other bacterial species, such as Haemophilus haemolyticus and. Haemophilus influenzae has long been recognised as a major cause of serious infection and mortality in children less than 5 years old.

Prior to the introduction ofHaemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) immunisation, the incidence of a child suffering an invasiveHaemophilus infection was 20–50/, in industrialised countries and up to ten times higher in developing regions.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) causes pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, epiglottitis, septic arthritis, cellulitis, otitis media, purulent pericarditis, and less commonly, endocarditis, endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, and -type b-encapsulated strains present in a similar manner to type b infections.

Nontypable strains more commonly cause infections of the. INTRODUCTION. Haemophilus influenzae are pleomorphic gram-negative rods that commonly colonize and infect the human respiratory tract.

The H. influenzae species is divided into typeable (encapsulated) and nontypeable (unencapsulated) strains. Among typeable strains, H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) is the most virulent. In areas of the world where Hib vaccination is not widespread, Hib is a.

Bisgard KM, Kao A, Leake JA, Strebel P, Perkins BA, Wharton M. Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease in the United States, – near disappearance of a vaccine-preventable childhood disease.

Emerg Infect Dis. ;– CDC. Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease among children aged less than 5 years — California, – Haemophilus influenzae protein E (PE) is a 16 kDa adhesin that induces a pro‐inflammatory immune response in lung epithelial cells. The active epithelial binding region comprising amino acids PE 84– also interferes with complement‐mediated bacterial killing by capturing vitronectin (Vn) that prevents complement deposition and formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC).

Haemophilus influenzae is divided into typeable or nontypeable strains based on the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. The typeable strains (such as type b) are an important cause of systemic infection, whilst the nontypeable strains (designated as NTHi) are predominantly respiratory mucosal pathogens.

NTHi is present as part of the normal microbiome in the nasopharynx, from. MICROBIOLOGY. Haemophilus influenzae is a small, non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative pleomorphic rod that can be either encapsulated (serotypes a-f) or unencapsulated (non-typeable H.

influenzae). Haemophilus influenzae normally exists as a commensal in the human upper respiratory tract, but can cause disease, either by invasion of the blood stream or by contiguous spread.

Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are enzymes that repair ROS-damage to sulfur-containing amino acids such as methionine, ensuring functional integrity of cellular proteins. Here we have shown that unlike the majority of pro- and eukaryotic Msrs, the peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrAB) from the human pathobiont Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is required for the repair.

Initially, patients with invasive and serious H influenzae infections are best treated with an intravenous third-generation cephalosporin until antibiotic sensitivities become available.

It is important to monitor the resistance rates (in the hospital or the region) of H influenzae to the different antibiotics to guide empiric antimicrobial choices while awaiting susceptibility results. Timothy F. Murphy, in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), Clinical Manifestations.

Haemophilus species, particularly H. parainfluenzae, and the two species moved from Haemophilus to Aggregatibacter, A.

aphrophilus and A. paraphrophilus, are now recognized increasingly as a cause of infective endocarditis, causing up to 5% of. The pathology associated with human respiratory tract bacterial agents that exist as opportunistic commensals in the nasopharynx cause infections.

This is particularly true for the middle ear disease otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are a commonly .Lisa Martin, in The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents, Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen of the normal flora of the human nasopharynx and it accounts for 25–30% of all otitis media cases in humans (Tong et al., ).NTHi has mechanisms which enhance its infectivity, notably the ability.Haemophilus influenzae type b.

Haemophilus influenzae. is a cause of bacterial infections that are often severe, particularly among infants. It was first described by Pfeiffer in During an outbreak of influenza he found the bacteria in sputum of patients and proposed a .